|What are Trefoil Factor Family Peptides (TFFs)?
The trefoil factor family -TFF is a relatively new family of peptides which bear the three-loop trefoil domain. Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides consist of three members of small proteins (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 1）
Werner Hoffmann,25 June, 2020
The major amounts of TFF peptides are secreted from mucous epithelia, where they are released together with mucins 2, typical constituents of mucus gels, e.g. in the gastrointestinal (GI) and respiratory tracts and the uterus 3. They act as a gastric tumor suppressor (TFF1) or they play different roles in mucosal innate immune defense (TFF2, TFF3) 2 .
Werner Hoffmann,Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020
|What can Trefoil Factor Family Peptides (TFFs) do?
Trefoil factor family peptides (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) are key players in protecting, maintaining, and repairing the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, they have the therapeutic potential to treat and prevent a variety of gastrointestinal disorders associated with mucosal damage4. They are involved in regulating the tight junctions between intestinal epithelial cells:
-Reduce the bypass permeability of intestinal epithelial cells to enhance intestinal barrier function
-Regulate the repair and regeneration of damaged mucosa
-Mobilize cell migration ability
-Maintain intestinal osmotic pressure balance
A diagram showing a mature ulcer associated cell lineage (UACL) gland in the small intestine and the regenerating monolayer growing over the surface of an intestinal (or gastric) ulcer. The sites of expression of the trefoil factors are indicated.
W M Wong, etc. 1,June, 1999
Trefoil Factor Family Peptides (TFFs) on Animals
A new efficient feed additive. The only solution can repair damaged intestinal mucosa directly. The most effective means to reduce the risk of disease. They can:
--Enhance the intestinal mechanical barrier and reduce the risk of intestinal microbial invasion
--Repair and Enhance gut mucosal function, reduce intestinal diarrhea caused by increased intestinal permeability
--Restore intestinal homeostasis and improve feed digestion and utilization
1. Wright NA, Hoffmann W, Otto WR, Rio MC, Thim L. Rolling in the clover: trefoil factor family (TFF)-domain peptides, cell migration and cancer. FEBS Lett 1997; 408: 121–3.10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00424-9Search in Google Scholar
2. Werner Hoffmann, thefoil factor family(TFF) peptides and their links to inflammation: a re-evaluation and new medical perspectives, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4909: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094909
3. Maike Busch and Nicole Dünker, trefoil factor family peptides-friends or foes? The journal Biomolecular Concepts https://doi.org.10.1515/brnc-2015-0020
4. Nayara Braga Emidio, Stuart M. Brierley, Christina I. Schroeder, and Markus Muttenthaler, Structure, Function, and Therapeutic Potential of the Trefoil Factor Family in the gastrointestinal tract, ACS Pharmacol, Transl. Sci. 2020,3,4,583-597 https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.0c00023